Very Simple Bench Amplifier

A small 325mW amplifier with a voltage gain of 200 that can be used as a bench amplifier, signal tracer or used to amplify the output from personal radios, etc. The circuit is based on the National Semiconductor LM386 amplifier. In the diagram above, the LM386 forms a complete non-inverting amplifier with voltage gain of x200. A datasheet in PDF format can be downloaded from the National Semiconductor website. The IC is available in an 8 pin DIL package and several versions are available; the LM386N-1 which has 325mW output into an 8 ohm load, the Lm386N-3 which has 700mW output and the LM386N-4 which offers 1000mW output. all versions work in this circuit. The gain of the Lm386 can be controlled by the capacitor across pins 1 and 8. With the 10u cap shown above, voltage gain is 200, omitting this capacitor and the gain of the amplifier is 20.

Finished project:
Circuit diagram:
Bench Amplifier Circuit Diagram

The IC works from 4 to 12Volts DC, 12Volt being the maximum recommended value. The internal input impedance of the amplifier is 50K, this is shunted with a 22k log potentiometer so input impedance in this circuit will be lower at about 15k. The input is DC coupled so care must be taken not to amplify any DC from the preceeding circuit, otherwise the loudspeaker may be damaged. A coupling capacitor may included in series with the 22k control to prevent this from happening.
Source: Zen

1W BTL Audio Amplifier

The TDA8581(T) from Philips Semiconductors is a 1-watt Bridge Tied Load (BTL) audio power amplifier capable of delivering 1 watt output power into an 8-Wload at THD (total harmonic distortion) of 10% and using a 5V power supply. The schematic shown here combines the functional diagram of the TDA8551 with its typical application circuit. The gain of the amplifier can be set by the digital volume control input. At the highest volume setting, the gain is 20 dB. Using the MODE pin the device can be switched to one of three modes: standby (MODE level between Vp and Vp–0.5 V), muted (MODE level between 1 V and Vp–1.4 V) or normal (MODE level less than 0.5 V). The TDA8551 is protected by an internal thermal shutdown protection mechanism. The total voltage loss for both MOS transistors in the complementary output stage is less than 1 V.

Circuit diagram:1-Watt BTL audio amplifier
1 Watt BTL Audio Amplifier Circuit Diagram

Using a 5-V supply and an 8-W loudspeaker, an output power of 1 watt can be delivered. The volume control has an attenuation range of between 0 dB and 80 dB in 64 steps set by the 3-state level at the UP/DOWN pin: floating: volume remains unchanged; negative pulses: decrease volume; positive pulses: increase volume Each pulse at he Up/DOWN pin causes a change in gain of 80/64 = 1.25 dB (typical value). When the supply voltage is first connected, the attenuator is set to 40 dB (low volume), so the gain of the total amplifier is then –20 dB. Some positive pulses have to be applied to the UP/DOWN pin to achieve listening volume. The graph shows the THD as a function of output power. The maximum quiescent current consumption of the amplifier is specified at 10 mA, to which should be added the current resulting from the output offset voltage divided by the load impedance.

Simple Servo Driver

When it comes to driving a servo you typically have to send a PWM signal to the servo input. The frequency of this signal is about 50 Hz and the duty cycle is variable. The duty cycle is usually between about 5 and 10%, corresponding with a pulse width of about 1 to 2 ms. The conversion of a resistance value into a PWM signal is fairly straightforward when a variable RC time constant circuit is used. Converting a voltage into a PWM signal is a bit more difficult, but it does offer some useful advantages.

Simple Servo Driver Circuit Diagram

When the position of a servo can be controlled via a voltage, it can be implemented via a potentiometer acting as a voltage divider. However, you could also use the output of a sensor such as a Hall sensor, an LDR or an NTC. That way you could easily create a feed-back loop that takes account of the position, light intensity or the temperature, and use this to control the servo. This can in turn be used to open or close a gas or water valve, for example. The circuit can therefore be said to be reasonably versatile.

There are special purpose PWM modulator ICs available, but it’s just as easy to use a quad op amp such as an LM324. In the circuit op amp C is configured to output a bias signal of half the supply voltage. Op amp D is set up as a square-wave oscillator, with its frequency set to about 50 Hz, which is the frequency required by the servo. The duty cycle is fixed and set to a value slightly higher than the maximum 10%.

This is followed by an integrator that changes the waveform of the pulse into a triangular form. Op amp B is configured as a comparator that compares this triangular wave with the DC voltage Uin. The output of the comparator is a PWM signal that is suitable to drive the servo directly. The frequency is about 50 Hz and the duty cycle can be varied from just under 5% to a good 10% when Uin varies from 0.5 to 4 V. The servo, an RS-2 in our prototype, reacts to this with an angular rotation of about 200 degrees. The transfer function in this case is therefore 200 / (4–0.5) = 57 degrees per volt.

Author: Gert Baars - Copyright: Elektor

Automatic Battery Charger

Normally, chargers available in the market do not have any sort of control except for a ro-tary switch that can select different tap-pings on a rheostat, to vary the charging current. This type of control is not adequate because of the irregular fluctuations in the mains supply, rendering the control ineffective.  A simple circuit intended for automatic charging of lead-acid batteries is presented here. It is flexible enough to be used for large capacity inverter batteries. Only the rating of transformer and power transistor needs to be increased.

Circuit diagram :
Automatic Battery Charger Circuit Diagram
Automatic Battery Charger Circuit Diagram
The circuit has been basically designed for a car battery (about 40 Ah rating), which could be used for lighting two 40W tube lights. The circuit includes Schmitt trigger relay driver,float charger,and battery voltage monitor sections.  The Schmitt trigger is incorporated to avoid relay chattering. It is designed for a window of about 1V. During charging, when the battery voltage increases be-yond 13.64V, the relay cuts off and the float charging section continues to work. When battery voltage goes below 11.66V, the relay is turned on and direct (fast) charging of the battery takes place at around 3A.  In the Schmitt trigger circuit, resistors R1 and R2 are used as a simple voltage divider (divide-by-2) to provide battery voltage sample to the inverting input terminal of IC1. The non-invert-ing input terminal of IC1 is used for reference input derived from the output of IC2 (7806), using the potentiometer arrangement of resistors R3 (18 kilo-ohm) and R4 (1 kilo-ohm).
LED1 is connected across relay to indicate fast charging mode. Diodes D3 and D6 in the common leads of IC2 and IC3 respectively provide added protecion to the regulators.  The float charging section, comprising regulator 7812, transistors T3 and T4, and few other discrete components, becomes active when the battery volt-age goes above 13.64V (such that the relay RL1 is deenergised). In the energised state of the relay, the emitter and collector of transistor T4 remain shorted, and hence the float charger is ineffective and direct charging of battery takes place.
The reference terminal of regulator (IC3) is kept at 3.9V using LED2, LED3, and diode D6 in the common lead of IC3 to obtain the required regulated output (15.9V), in excess of its rated output, which is needed for proper operation of the circuit. This output voltage is fed to the base of transistor T3 (BC548), which along with transistor T4 (2N3055) forms a Darlington pair. You get 14.5V output at the emitter of transistor T4, but because of a drop in diode D7 you effectively get 13.8V at the positive terminal of the battery. When Schmitt trigger switches ‘on’ relay RL1, charging is at high current rate (boost mode). The fast charging path, starting from transformer X2, comprises diode D5, N/O contacts of relay RL1, and diode D7.
The circuit built around IC4 and IC5 is the voltage monitoring section that provides visual display of battery voltage level in bar graph like fashion. Regulator 7805 is used for generating reference voltage. Preset VR1 (20 kilo-ohm) can be used to adjust voltage levels as indicated in the circuit. Here also a pot meter arrangement using resistors R7, R8, and R9 is used as ‘divide by 3’ circuit to sample the battery voltage. When voltage is below 10V, the buzzer sounds to indicate that the safe dis-charge limit has been exceeded.
Author : Yash Deep - Copyright : EFY Mag

MP3 FM Transmitter Circuit Diagram

Here's a simple VHF FM transmitter that could be used to play audio files from an MP3 player or computer on a standard VHF FM radio. The circuit use no coils that have to be wound. This FM transmitter can be used to listen to your own music throughout your home. When this FM transmitter used in the car, there is no need for a separate input to the car stereo to play back the music files from your MP3 player.
Project image :
MP3-FM-Transmitter Projecat
USB FM transmitter
To keep the circuit simple as well as compact, it was decided to use a chip made by Maxim Integrated Products, the MAX2606 [1]. This IC from the MAX2605-MAX2609 series has been specifically designed for low-noise RF applications with a fixed frequency. The VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) in this IC uses a Colpitts oscillator circuit. The variable-capacitance (varicap) diode and feedback capacitors
for the tuning have also been integrated on this chip, so that you only need an external inductor to fix the central oscillator frequency.
t is possible to fine-tune the frequency by varying the voltage to the varicap. Not much is demanded of the inductor, a type with a relatively low Q factor (35 to 40) is sufficient according to Maxim. The supply voltage to the IC should be between 2.7 and 5.5 V, the current consumption is between 2 and 4 mA. With values like these it seemed a good idea to supply the circuit with power from a USB port.
Circuit diagram:
MP3-FM-Transmitter-Schematic -Circuit Diagram
USB FM transmitter schematics Circuit diagram

 Parts List
Resistors (all SMD 0805)
R1,R2 = 22kΩ
R3 = 4kΩ7
R4,R5 = 1kΩ
R6 = 270Ω
P1 = 10kΩ preset, SMD (TS53YJ103MR10 Vishay Sfernice, Farnell # 1557933)
P2 = 100kΩ preset, SMD(TS53YJ104MR10 Vishay Sfernice, Farnell # 1557934)
Capacitors (all SMD 0805)
C1,C2,C5 = 4μF7 10V
C3,C8 = 100nF
C4,C7 = 2nF2
C6 = 470nF
L1 = 390nF, SMD 1206 (LQH31HNR39K03L Murata, Farnell # 1515418)
L2 = 2200Ω @ 100MHz, SMD, common-mode choke, 1206 type(DLW31SN222SQ2L Murata, Farnell #1515599)
IC1 = MAX2606EUT+, SMD SOT23-6 (Maxim Integrated Products)
K1 = 3.5mm stereo audio jack SMD (SJ1-3513-SMT
CUI Inc, DIGI-Key # CP1-3513SJCT-ND)
K2 = 5-pin header (only required in combination with 090305-I pre-emphasis circuit)
K3 = USB connector type A, SMD (2410 07 Lumberg, Farnell # 1308875)
A common-mode choke is connected in series with the USB connections in order to avoid interference between the circuit and the PC supply. There is not much else to the circuit. The stereo signal connected to K1 is combined via R1 and R2 and is then passed via volume control P1 to the Tune input of IC1, where it causes the carrier wave to be frequency modulated. Filter R6/C7 is used to restrict the bandwidth of the audio signal. The setting of the frequency (across the whole VHF FM broadcast band) is done with P2, which is connected to the 5 V supply voltage.
The PCB designed uses resistors and capacitors with 0805 SMD packaging. The size of the board is only 41.2 x 17.9 mm, which is practically dongle-sized. For the aerial an almost straight copper track has been placed at the edge of the board. In practice we achieved a range of about 6 metres (18 feet) with this. There is also room for a 5-way SIL header on the board. Here we find the inputs to the 3.5 mm jack plug, the input to P1 and the supply voltage. The latter permits the circuit to be powered independently from the mains supply, via for example three AA batteries or a Lithium button cell. Inductor L1 in the prototype is a type made by Murata that has a fairly high Q factor: minimum 60 at 100 MHz.
PCB Layout :
 USB FM transmitter Layout PCB

Take care when you solder filter choke L2, since the connections on both sides are very close together. The supply voltage is connected to this, so make sure that you don’t short out the USB supply! Use a resistance meter to check that there is no short between the two supply connectors before connecting the circuit to a USB port on a computer or to the batteries.
P1 has the opposite effect to what you would expect (clockwise reduces the volume), because this made the board layout much easier. The deviation and audio bandwidth varies with the setting of P1. The maximum sensitivity of the audio input is fairly large. With P1 set to its maximum level, a stereo input of 10 mVrms is sufficient for the sound on the radio to remain clear. This also depends on the setting of the VCO. With a higher tuning voltage the input signal may be almost twice as large (see VCO tuning curve in the data sheet). Above that level some audible distortion becomes apparent. If the attenuation can’t be easily set by P1, you can increase the values of R1 and R2 without any problems.
Measurements with an RF analyzer showed that the third harmonic had a strong presence in the transmitted spectrum (about 10 dB below the fundamental frequency). This should really have been much lower. With a low-impedance source connected to both inputs the bandwidth varies from 13.1 kHz (P1 at maximum) to 57 kHz (with the wiper of P1 set to 1/10). In this circuit the pre-emphasis of the input is missing. Radios in Europe have a built-in de-emphasis network of 50 μs (75 μs in the US). The sound from the radio will therefore sound noticeably muffled. To correct this, and also to stop a stereo receiver from mistakenly reacting to a 19 kHz component in the audio signal, an enhancement circuit Is published elsewhere in this issue (Pre-emphasis for FM Transmitter, also with a PCB). Author: Mathieu Coustans, Elektor Magazine, 2009
Notice. The use of a VHF FM transmitter, even a low power device like the one described here, is subject to radio regulations and may not be legal in all countries.